The Details Behind the Story of the Sun’s Evil Twin


The Story of the Sun’s Evil Twin. Also refered to as Nibiru, Nemesis, Marduk, Hercolubus, Planet X, and Tyche
example of Tyche
Example of what Tyche (also refered to as Nibiru, Nemesis, Marduk, Hercolubus, Planet X) would look like
In 1983, a scientist named Richard Muller came up with an interesting theory to explain the almost regular interavals between mass extinctions on Earth.Roughly every 26 million years, the Earth suffers a massive extinction event* in which whole species and ecosystems disappear. It’s widely believed and accepted by the scientific community that the extinction events are precipitated by the impacts of comets and asteroid impacts, but what Muller devised to explain the almost regular event was rather scandalous – what if the sun had an evil twin brother? Muller theorized that, orbiting the sun at a great distance, is another star – possibly a red or brown dwarf which orbits the sun once every 26 million years at a distance of 1 to 3 light years* (this is very distant when you consider that the closest known star, Proxima Centauri, is only 4.2 light years away!) When the star, which Muller named Nemesis after the Greek goddess of divine retribution, gets close to the sun thanks to an irregular orbit, it disturbs the Oort Cloud, the grouping of icy comets and bodies at the edge of our solar system, and sends them on a collision course towards the inner planets.
KuiperbeltOort cloud
Click image to enlarge

But wait a minute, if Nemesis really is out there, why can’t we see it? According to scientists who support the theory, Nemesis is a brown dwarf star which is a fancy way of saying it’s a failed star. It would be too small to sustain nuclear fusion and would simply be nothing more than a big ball of gas making it dark and very hard to find.

However, Muller’s theory does fall under some scrutiny. No where in the known galaxy have astronomers found a star that orbits at the distance that he described. For this and other reasons, support for the Nemesis theory has waned, but it hasn’t died and lives on.
Source

More info:
About Richard Muller
Muller’s Website
Muller’s Research Interests
Muller’s Theory:
– Nemesis web page
Transcript of NYTimes Article written by Muller in 1985
– Measurement of the lunar impact record for the past 3.5 billion years, and implications for the Nemesis theory most recent paper (2002)

From Muller’s Website:

Nemesis. This is a theory worked out with Marc Davis and Piet Hut. It predicts the future discovery of a small (probably red dwarf) star orbiting the Sun at a distance of a few light years. The theory has been considered controversial and speculative, but it has not yet been ruled out. We should know for sure in the next few years. I wrote an article about our work for the New York Times Magazine in 1985; here is a transcript: NYTimes Article . See the Nemesis web page . See also ” Measurements of lunar impacts … and implications for the Nemesis theory. ”
——–

* A lightyear is the distance light travels through space in one year.
One lightyear is about 5.87 trillion miles or 9.46 trillion kilometers.
More about time »
*

Since life began on Earth, several major mass extinctions have significantly exceeded the background extinction rate. The most recent, the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event , which occurred approximately 65.5 million years ago (Ma), was a large-scale mass extinction of animal and plant species in a geologically short period of time. In the past 540 million years there have been five major events when over 50% of animal species died. Mass extinctions seem to be a Phanerozoic phenomenon, with extinction rates low before large complex organisms arose.Estimates of the number of major mass extinctions in the last 540 million years range from as few as five to more than twenty. These differences stem from the threshold chosen for describing an extinction event as “major”, and the data chosen to measure past diversity. Read more

More info on:

Nibiru cataclysm
2012 phenomenon
Zecharia Sitchin
Nemesis (mytholoy)
Nemesis (hypothetical star)
Marduk
Hercolubus
Planet X
Tyche (mythology)
Tyche (hypothetical planet)
Cycle of mass extinctions
Extinction Level Event (ELE)

Unidentified IRAS Sources (1985) | from entry of Houck, J. R.
How the story Continued
Background
In November 2010, the scientific journal Icarus published a paper by astrophysicists John Matese and Daniel Whitmire, who proposed the existence of a binary companion to our sun, larger than Jupiter, in the long-hypothesized “Oort cloud” — a faraway repository of small icy bodies at the edge of our solar system. The researchers use the name “Tyche” for the hypothetical planet. Their paper argues that evidence for the planet would have been recorded by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE).WISE is a NASA mission, launched in December 2009, which scanned the entire celestial sky at four infrared wavelengths about 1.5 times. It captured more than 2.7 million images of objects in space, ranging from faraway galaxies to asteroids and comets relatively close to Earth. Recently, WISE completed an extended mission, allowing it to finish a complete scan of the asteroid belt, and two complete scans of the more distant universe, in two infrared bands. So far, the mission’s discoveries of previously unknown objects include an ultra-cold star or brown dwarf, 20 comets, 134 near-Earth objects (NEOs), and more than 33,000 asteroids in the main belt between Mars and Jupiter.Following its successful survey, WISE was put into hibernation in February 2011. Analysis of WISE data continues. A preliminary public release of the first 14 weeks of data was planned for April 2011, and the final release of the full survey planned for March 2012.

FAQ
(released February 18, 2011)Frequently Asked Questions

Q: When could data from WISE confirm or rule out the existence of the hypothesized planet Tyche?
A: It is too early to know whether WISE data confirms or rules out a large object in the Oort cloud. Analysis over the next couple of years will be needed to determine if WISE has actually detected such a world or not. The first 14 weeks of data, being released in April 2011, are unlikely to be sufficient. The full survey, scheduled for release in March 2012, should provide greater insight. Once the WISE data are fully processed, released and analyzed, the Tyche hypothesis that Matese and Whitmire propose will be tested.

Q:
Is it a certainty that WISE would have observed such a planet if it exists?
A: It is likely but not a foregone conclusion that WISE could confirm whether or not Tyche exists. Since WISE surveyed the whole sky once, then covered the entire sky again in two of its infrared bands six months later, WISE would see a change in the apparent position of a large planet body in the Oort cloud over the six-month period. The two bands used in the second sky coverage were designed to identify very small, cold stars (or brown dwarfs) — which are much like planets larger than Jupiter, as Tyche is hypothesized to be.

Q: If Tyche does exist, why would it have taken so long to find another planet in our solar system?
A: Tyche would be too cold and faint for a visible light telescope to identify. Sensitive infrared telescopes could pick up the glow from such an object, if they looked in the right direction. WISE is a sensitive infrared telescope that looks in all directions.

Q: Why is the hypothesized object dubbed “Tyche,” and why choose a Greek name when the names of other planets derive from Roman mythology?
A: In the 1980s, a different companion to the sun was hypothesized. That object, named for the Greek goddess “Nemesis,” was proposed to explain periodic mass extinctions on the Earth. Nemesis would have followed a highly elliptical orbit, perturbing comets in the Oort Cloud roughly every 26 million years and sending a shower of comets toward the inner solar system. Some of these comets would have slammed into Earth, causing catastrophic results to life. Recent scientific analysis no longer supports the idea that extinctions on Earth happen at regular, repeating intervals. Thus, the Nemesis hypothesis is no longer needed. However, it is still possible that the sun could have a distant, unseen companion in a more circular orbit with a period of a few million years — one that would not cause devastating effects to terrestrial life. To distinguish this object from the malevolent “Nemesis,” astronomers chose the name of Nemesis‘s benevolent sister in Greek mythology, “Tyche.”JPL manages and operates the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer for NASA’s Science Mission Directorate, Washington. The principal investigator, Edward Wright, is at UCLA. The mission was competitively selected under NASA’s Explorers Program managed by the Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. The science instrument was built by the Space Dynamics Laboratory, Logan, Utah, and the spacecraft was built by Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp., Boulder, Colo. Science operations and data processing take place at the Infrared Processing and Analysis Center at the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena. Caltech manages JPL for NASA.

Source: Tyche (NASA Release) Can WISE Find the Hypothetical ‘Tyche’? (February 18, 2011)
WISE News (February 18, 2011)

More information is online at
http://www.nasa.gov/wise
http:// wise.astro.ucla.edu/
http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/ wise

References:
Scientific Journal Icarus
Icarus Volume 210, Issue 1, Pages 1-538 (November 2010)
(note: no paper found by astrophysicists John Matese and Daniel Whitmire (?)
Astrophysics Homepage of John J. Matese
Daniel p. Whitmire
new Icarus 2011 paper on Solar Companion
WISE All-Sky Data Release
What NASA had to say about Nibiru
http://youtu.be/1TIy-t48uU0
Uploaded by nasalunar October 21 2011 
NASA Lunar Science Institute David Morrison Truth Nibiru
Ask an AstrobiologistAsk an Astrobiologist has received more than 5000 questions about Nibiru and Doomsday 2012, with more than 400 answers posted. Read a summary of the answers that have already been posted, view a video on these topics, use the search feature and read the FAQ’s before submitting questions on these topics. Two new (March 2012) videos about the 2012 doomsday theory: David Morrison and Don Yeomans
Nibiru and Doomsday 2012: Questions and Answers
Search for Tyche comes up with 258 Tyche (an S-type, main belt asteroid)
258 Tyche
Classification: Main-belt Asteroid          SPK-ID: 2000258
Ephemeris | Orbit Diagram | Orbital Elements | Physical Parameters | Discovery Circumstances ]
Orbit Diagram
Note:
Make sure you have Java enabled on your browser to see the applet.
This applet is provided as a 3D orbit visualization tool.
The applet was implemented using 2-body methods,
and hence should not be used for determining accurate long-term trajectories
(over several years or decades) or planetary encounter circumstances
.
For accurate long-term ephemerides, please instead use our Horizons system.
Additional Notes: the orbits shown in the applet are color coded. The planets are white lines, and the asteroid/comet is a blue line. The bright white line indicates the portion of the orbit that is above the ecliptic plane, and the darker portion is below the ecliptic plane. Likewise for the asteroid/comet orbit, the light blue indicates the portion above the ecliptic plane, and the dark blue the portion below the ecliptic plane.Orbit Viewer applet originally written and kindly provided by
Osamu Ajiki (AstroArts),
and further modified by
Ron Baalke (JPL).

258 Tyche Discovered 1886-May-04 by Luther, R. at Dusseldorf | Robert Luther
Reference: DISCOVERY.DB
Last Updated:
2003-08-29

Classification of 258 Tyche: Main-belt Asteroid (Description: Asteroids with orbital elements constrained by (2.0 AU < a < 3.2 AU; q > 1.666 A)
258 Tyche SPK-ID: 2000258

– Orbit diagram of 258 Tyche
– Ephemeris of 258 Tyche
– Orbital Elements of 258 Tyche

– Physical Parameters of 258 Tyche
– Discovery Circumstances of 258 Tyche 

More Info on: 258 Tyche
Discovered by Robert Luther on May 4, 1886 in Düsseldorf
Classified as an S-type Asteroid
Relatively large main belt asteroid
Diameter: 64.78 km
Orbits very close to the Eunomia family of asteroids
—-

Hypothetical Planets between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter
Tyche , a hypothetical planet in the Oort Cloud supposedly responsible for producing the statistical excess in long period comets in a band.
Fifth planet (hypothetical) , historical speculation about a planet between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter.
Phaeton , a planet situated between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter whose destruction supposedly led to the formation of the asteroid belt . Nowadays this hypothesis is considered unlikely, since the asteroid belt has far too little mass to have resulted from the explosion of a large planet.
Planet V , a planet thought by John Chambers and Jack Lissauer to have once existed between Mars and the asteroid belt , based on computer simulations.
UPDATE MARCH 7 2014

NASA’s WISE Survey Finds Thousands of New Stars, But No ‘Planet X’

NASA’s WISE has turned up no evidence of the hypothesized celestial body in our solar system commonly dubbed “Planet X.”

pia17990-constraints_0
What WISE Can and Cannot See

Data from NASA’s Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, or WISE, has found no evidence for a hypothesized body sometimes referred to as “Planet X.” This body was thought to be a large planet or small star orbiting in the far reaches of our solar system. Astronomers searched millions of images taken by WISE over the whole sky, finding no Saturn-like body out to a distance of 10,000 astronomical units (au) from the sun, and no Jupiter-like body out to 26,000 au. One astronomical unit equals 93 million miles. Earth is 1 au, and Pluto about 40 au, from the sun.

This chart shows what types of objects WISE can and cannot see at certain distances from our sun. Bodies with larger masses are brighter, and therefore can be seen at greater distances. For example, if a Jupiter-mass planet existed at 10,000 au, WISE would have easily seen it. But WISE would not have been able to see a Jupiter-mass planet residing at 100,000 au — it would have been too faint.
The chart was created by Janella Williams of Penn State University, University Park, Pa.

WISE was put into hibernation upon completing its primary mission in 2011. In September 2013, it was reactivated, renamed NEOWISE and assigned a new mission to assist NASA’s efforts to identify the population of potentially hazardous near-Earth objects. NEOWISE will also characterize previously known asteroids and comets to better understand their sizes and compositions.

Image Credit: Penn State University | Source

After searching hundreds of millions of objects across our sky, NASA’s Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) has turned up no evidence of the hypothesized celestial body in our solar system commonly dubbed “Planet X.”Researchers previously had theorized about the existence of this large, but unseen celestial body, suspected to lie somewhere beyond the orbit of Pluto. In addition to “Planet X,” the body had garnered other nicknames, including “Nemesis” and “Tyche.

“This recent study, which involved an examination of WISE data covering the entire sky in infrared light, found no object the size of Saturn or larger exists out to a distance of 10,000 astronomical units (au), and no object larger than Jupiter exists out to 26,000 au. One astronomical unit equals 93 million miles. Earth is 1 au, and Pluto about 40 au, from the sun.

“The outer solar system probably does not contain a large gas giant planet, or a small, companion star,” said Kevin Luhman of the Center for Exoplanets and Habitable Worlds at Penn State University, University Park, Pa., author of a paper in the Astrophysical Journal describing the results.But searches of the WISE catalog are not coming up empty.

A second study reveals several thousand new residents in our sun’s “backyard,” consisting of stars and cool bodies called brown dwarfs.”Neighboring star systems that have been hiding in plain sight just jump out in the WISE data,” said Ned Wright of the University of California, Los Angeles, the principal investigator of the mission.

The second WISE study, which concentrated on objects beyond our solar system, found 3,525 stars and brown dwarfs within 500 light-years of our sun.”We’re finding objects that were totally overlooked before,” said Davy Kirkpatrick of NASA’s Infrared and Processing Analysis Center at the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Calif. Kirkpatrick is lead author of the second paper, also in the Astrophysical Journal. Some of these 3,525 objects also were found in the Luhman study, which catalogued 762 objects.The WISE mission operated from 2010 through early 2011, during which time it performed two full scans of the sky — with essentially a six-month gap between scans. The survey captured images of nearly 750 million asteroids, stars and galaxies.

In November 2013, NASA released data from the AllWISE program, which now enables astronomers to compare the two full-sky surveys to look for moving objects.In general, the more an object in the WISE images appears to move over time, the closer it is. This visual clue is the same effect at work when one observes a plane flying low to the ground versus the same plane flying at higher altitude. Though traveling at the same speed, the plane at higher altitude will appear to be moving more slowly.Searches of the WISE data catalog for these moving objects are uncovering some of the closest stars.

The discoveries include a star located about 20 light-years away in the constellation Norma, and as reported last March, a pair of brown dwarfs only 6.5 light-years away — making it the closest star system to be discovered in nearly a century.Despite the large number of new solar neighbors found by WISE, “Planet X” did not show up. Previous speculations about this hypothesized body stemmed in part from geological studies that suggested a regular timing associated with mass extinctions on Earth. The idea was that a large planet or small star hidden in the farthest reaches of our solar system might periodically sweep through bands of outer comets, sending them flying toward our planet.

The Planet X-based mass extinction theories were largely ruled out even prior to the new WISE study.Other theories based on irregular comet orbits had also postulated a Planet X-type body. The new WISE study now argues against these theories as well.Both of the WISE searches were able to find objects the other missed, suggesting many other celestial bodies likely await discovery in the WISE data.

“We think there are even more stars out there left to find with WISE. We don’t know our own sun’s backyard as well as you might think,” said Wright.WISE was put into hibernation upon completing its primary mission in 2011.

In September 2013, it was reactivated, renamed NEOWISE and assigned a new mission to assist NASA’s efforts to identify the population of potentially hazardous near-Earth objects. NEOWISE will also characterize previously known asteroids and comets to better understand their sizes and compositions.JPL managed and operated WISE for NASA’s Science Mission Directorate. The mission was selected competitively under NASA’s Explorers Program managed by the agency’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md.

The science instrument was built by the Space Dynamics Laboratory in Logan, Utah. The spacecraft was built by Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp. in Boulder, Colo. Science operations and data processing take place at the Infrared Processing and Analysis Center at the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena. Caltech manages JPL for NASA .Source


More information is online at:
http://www.nasa.gov/wise
http://wise.astro.ucla.edu
http://jpl.nasa.gov/wise .

By Bookofresearch

9 thoughts on “The Details Behind the Story of the Sun’s Evil Twin

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  6. Reblogged this on Lissa's Humane Life and commented:
    Example of what Tyche (also refered to as Nibiru, Nemesis, Marduk, Hercolubus, Planet X) would look like

    In 1983, a scientist named Richard Muller came up with an interesting theory to explain the almost regular interavals between mass extinctions on Earth.Roughly every 26 million years, the Earth suffers a massive extinction event* in which whole species and ecosystems disappear. It’s widely believed and accepted by the scientific community that the extinction events are precipitated by the impacts of comets and asteroid impacts, but what Muller devised to explain the almost regular event was rather scandalous – what if the sun had an evil twin brother? Muller theorized that, orbiting the sun at a great distance, is another star – possibly a red or brown dwarf which orbits the sun once every 26 million years at a distance of 1 to 3 light years* (this is very distant when you consider that the closest known star, Proxima Centauri, is only 4.2 light years away!) When the star, which Muller named Nemesis after the Greek goddess of divine retribution, gets close to the sun thanks to an irregular orbit, it disturbs the Oort Cloud, the grouping of icy comets and bodies at the edge of our solar system, and sends them on a collision course towards the inner planets.

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